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Posts tagged Io

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peteuplink:

A couple of days ago I uploaded the Io, Ganymede transit of Jupiter. Unfortunately, my original video was missing a few frames of the transit, but a fellow astronomer was kind enough to send me the missing images, so here is the finished video of the complete Io, Ganymede transit.

-Pete


I just need this on my blog.

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Filed under Jupiter transit Io Ganymede astronomy space

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What’s happening on Jupiter’s moon Io? Two sulfurous eruptions are visible on Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io in this color composite image from the robotic Galileo spacecraft that orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003. At the image top, over Io’s limb, a bluish plume rises about 140 kilometers above the surface of a volcanic caldera known as Pillan Patera. In the image middle, near the night/day shadow line, the ring shaped Prometheus plume is seen rising about 75 kilometers above Io while casting a shadow below the volcanic vent. Named for the Greek god who gave mortals fire, the Prometheus plume is visible in every image ever made of the region dating back to the Voyager flybys of 1979 - presenting the possibility that this plume has been continuously active for at least 18 years.
Credit: Galileo Project, JPL, NASA
What’s happening on Jupiter’s moon Io? Two sulfurous eruptions are visible on Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io in this color composite image from the robotic Galileo spacecraft that orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003. 

At the image top, over Io’s limb, a bluish plume rises about 140 kilometers above the surface of a volcanic caldera known as Pillan Patera. In the image middle, near the night/day shadow line, the ring shaped Prometheus plume is seen rising about 75 kilometers above Io while casting a shadow below the volcanic vent. 

Named for the Greek god who gave mortals fire, the Prometheus plume is visible in every image ever made of the region dating back to the Voyager flybys of 1979 - presenting the possibility that this plume has been continuously active for at least 18 years.
Credit: Galileo Project, JPL, NASA

(Source: space.com)

Filed under Io JPL Jupiter NASA Prometheus plume moon space

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 Io in True Color   Credit:  Galileo Project, JPL, NASA
 Explanation:  The strangest moon in the  Solar System is bright yellow.    This  picture,  an attempt to show how Io would appear in the “true colors” perceptible to the average human eye, was taken in 1999 July by the  Galileo spacecraft that orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003.    Io’s colors derive from  sulfur and molten  silicate rock.    The unusual surface of Io  is kept very young by its system of  active volcanoes.    The intense  tidal gravity of  Jupiter stretches   Io and damps wobbles caused by Jupiter’s other  Galilean moons.    The resulting  friction greatly heats  Io’s interior, causing   molten rock to explode through the surface.    Io’s volcanoes  are so active that they are effectively turning the  whole moon inside out.    Some of  Io’s volcanic lava is so hot it   glows in the dark.
(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)
Io in True Color
Credit: Galileo Project, JPL, NASA

Explanation: The strangest moon in the Solar System is bright yellow. This picture, an attempt to show how Io would appear in the “true colors” perceptible to the average human eye, was taken in 1999 July by the Galileo spacecraft that orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003. Io’s colors derive from sulfur and molten silicate rock. The unusual surface of Io is kept very young by its system of active volcanoes. The intense tidal gravity of Jupiter stretches Io and damps wobbles caused by Jupiter’s other Galilean moons. The resulting friction greatly heats Io’s interior, causing molten rock to explode through the surface. Io’s volcanoes are so active that they are effectively turning the whole moon inside out. Some of Io’s volcanic lava is so hot it glows in the dark.

(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Filed under Galileo NASA Io moon Jupiter astronomy space solar system

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 Two Planet Opposition 
 Explanation:  In late September, two planets were opposite the Sun in Earth’s sky, Jupiter and Uranus.  Consequently closest to Earth, at a distance of only 33 light-minutes and 2.65 light-hours respectively, both were good targets for telescopic observers.  Recorded on September 27, this well-planned composite of consecutive multiple exposures captured both gas giants in their remarkable celestial line-up accompanied by their brighter moons.  The faint greenish disk of distant planet Uranus is near the upper left corner.  Of the tilted planet’s 5 larger moons, two can be spotted just above and left of the planet’s disk.  Both discovered by 18th century British astronomer Sir William Herschel and later named for characters in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Oberon is farthest left, with Titania closer in.  At the right side of the frame is ruling gas giant Jupiter, flanked along a line by all four of its Galilean satellites.  Farthest from Jupiter is Callisto, with Europa and Io all left of the planet’s disk, while Ganymede stands alone at the right.
(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)
Two Planet Opposition 

Explanation: In late September, two planets were opposite the Sun in Earth’s sky, Jupiter and Uranus. Consequently closest to Earth, at a distance of only 33 light-minutes and 2.65 light-hours respectively, both were good targets for telescopic observers. Recorded on September 27, this well-planned composite of consecutive multiple exposures captured both gas giants in their remarkable celestial line-up accompanied by their brighter moons. The faint greenish disk of distant planet Uranus is near the upper left corner. Of the tilted planet’s 5 larger moons, two can be spotted just above and left of the planet’s disk. Both discovered by 18th century British astronomer Sir William Herschel and later named for characters in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Oberon is farthest left, with Titania closer in. At the right side of the frame is ruling gas giant Jupiter, flanked along a line by all four of its Galilean satellites. Farthest from Jupiter is Callisto, with Europa and Io all left of the planet’s disk, while Ganymede stands alone at the right.

(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Filed under moon earth jupiter uranus Io Ganymede moons Europa Oberon solar system universe space astronomy

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Io in Eclipse
This unusual image shows  Io glowing in the darkness of Jupiter’s  shadow. It is a combination of  eight images taken by the New Horizons  Long Range Reconnaissance Imager  (LORRI) between 14:25 and 14:55  Universal Time on February 27, 2007,  about 15 hours before the  spacecraft’s closest approach to Jupiter.  North is at the top of the  image. Io’s surface is invisible in the darkness, but the image  reveals glowing  hot lava, auroral displays in Io’s tenuous atmosphere  and volcanic  plumes across the moon. The three bright points of light  on the right  side of Io are incandescent lava at active volcanoes -  Pele and Reiden  (south of the equator), and a previously unknown  volcano near 22 degrees  north, 233 degrees west near the edge of the  disk at the 2 o’clock  position. An auroral glow, produced as  intense radiation from Jupiter’s  magnetosphere bombards Io’s  atmosphere, outlines the edge of the moon’s  disk. The glow is patchy  because the atmosphere itself is patchy, being  denser over active  volcanoes. In addition to the near-surface glow,  there is a remarkable  auroral glow suspended 330 kilometers (200 miles)  above the edge of the  disk at the 2 o’clock position; perhaps this  glowing gas was ejected  from the new volcano below it. Another glowing  gas plume, above a  fainter point of light, is visible just inside Io’s  disk near the  6 o’clock position; this plume is above another new  volcanic eruption  discovered by New Horizons. On the left side of the disk, near  Io’s equator, a cluster of faint dots  of light is centered near the  point on Io that always faces Jupiter.  This is the region where  electrical currents connect Io to Jupiter’s  magnetosphere. It is likely  that electrical connections to individual  volcanoes are causing the  glows seen here, though the details are  mysterious. Total  exposure time for this image was 16 seconds. The range to Io was  2.8  million kilometers (1.7 million miles), and the image is centered at  Io  coordinates 7 degrees south, 306 degrees west. The image has been   heavily processed to remove scattered light from Jupiter, but some   artifacts remain, such as dark patches in the background.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute
(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Io in Eclipse

This unusual image shows Io glowing in the darkness of Jupiter’s shadow. It is a combination of eight images taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) between 14:25 and 14:55 Universal Time on February 27, 2007, about 15 hours before the spacecraft’s closest approach to Jupiter. North is at the top of the image.

Io’s surface is invisible in the darkness, but the image reveals glowing hot lava, auroral displays in Io’s tenuous atmosphere and volcanic plumes across the moon. The three bright points of light on the right side of Io are incandescent lava at active volcanoes - Pele and Reiden (south of the equator), and a previously unknown volcano near 22 degrees north, 233 degrees west near the edge of the disk at the 2 o’clock position.

An auroral glow, produced as intense radiation from Jupiter’s magnetosphere bombards Io’s atmosphere, outlines the edge of the moon’s disk. The glow is patchy because the atmosphere itself is patchy, being denser over active volcanoes. In addition to the near-surface glow, there is a remarkable auroral glow suspended 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the edge of the disk at the 2 o’clock position; perhaps this glowing gas was ejected from the new volcano below it. Another glowing gas plume, above a fainter point of light, is visible just inside Io’s disk near the 6 o’clock position; this plume is above another new volcanic eruption discovered by New Horizons.

On the left side of the disk, near Io’s equator, a cluster of faint dots of light is centered near the point on Io that always faces Jupiter. This is the region where electrical currents connect Io to Jupiter’s magnetosphere. It is likely that electrical connections to individual volcanoes are causing the glows seen here, though the details are mysterious.

Total exposure time for this image was 16 seconds. The range to Io was 2.8 million kilometers (1.7 million miles), and the image is centered at Io coordinates 7 degrees south, 306 degrees west. The image has been heavily processed to remove scattered light from Jupiter, but some artifacts remain, such as dark patches in the background.

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Filed under Io NASA Jupiter eclipse LORRI space astronomy volcano

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Seeing Red:  Tvashtar volcano on Jupiter’s moon, Io
This New Horizons image of Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io was taken at  13:05  Universal Time during the spacecraft’s Jupiter flyby on February  28,  2008.  It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant   volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit   crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the   hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left   provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits,   while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much   fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io. New  Horizons’ color imaging of Io’s sunlit side was generally  overexposed  because the spacecraft’s color camera, the super-sensitive   Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much   dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC’s four color filters,   the blue and “methane” filter (a special filter designed to map  methane  frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89   microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some   well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were   favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the   usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is   only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see. The  red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io’s largest   volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the   Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume   on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation   of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8),   so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io  volcanos.   Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue,  because  it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially  scatter blue  light, like smoke.  Also faintly visible in the left image  is the  pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk  on the  equator at the 9 o’clock position. Io was 2.4 million  kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was  taken, and the  center of Io’s disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5  degrees South  latitude.  The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute
(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Seeing Red: Tvashtar volcano on Jupiter’s moon, Io

This New Horizons image of Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft’s Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2008. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

New Horizons’ color imaging of Io’s sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft’s color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC’s four color filters, the blue and “methane” filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io’s largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o’clock position.

Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io’s disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Filed under NASA Io Jupiter moon volcano Tvashtar space astronomy

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Jupiter-Io Montage
This is a montage of New  Horizons images of Jupiter and its volcanic  moon Io, taken during the  spacecraft’s Jupiter flyby in early 2007.  The Jupiter image is an  infrared color composite taken by the  spacecraft’s near-infrared imaging  spectrometer, the Linear Etalon  Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA) at 1:40  UT on Feb. 28, 2007. The  infrared wavelengths used (red: 1.59 µm, green:  1.94 µm, blue: 1.85 µm)  highlight variations in the altitude of the  Jovian cloud tops, with  blue denoting high-altitude clouds and hazes,  and red indicating deeper  clouds. The prominent bluish-white oval is the  Great Red Spot. The  observation was made at a solar phase angle of 75  degrees but has been  projected onto a crescent to remove distortion  caused by Jupiter’s  rotation during the scan. The Io image, taken at  00:25 UT on March 1st  2007, is an approximately true-color composite  taken by the  panchromatic Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), with  color  information provided by the 0.5 µm (“blue”) and 0.9 µm  (“methane”)  channels of the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC).  The image  shows a major eruption in progress on Io’s night side, at the  northern  volcano Tvashtar. Incandescent lava glows red beneath a  330-kilometer  high volcanic plume, whose uppermost portions are  illuminated by  sunlight. The plume appears blue due to scattering of  light by small  particles in the plume.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute
(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Jupiter-Io Montage

This is a montage of New Horizons images of Jupiter and its volcanic moon Io, taken during the spacecraft’s Jupiter flyby in early 2007. The Jupiter image is an infrared color composite taken by the spacecraft’s near-infrared imaging spectrometer, the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA) at 1:40 UT on Feb. 28, 2007. The infrared wavelengths used (red: 1.59 µm, green: 1.94 µm, blue: 1.85 µm) highlight variations in the altitude of the Jovian cloud tops, with blue denoting high-altitude clouds and hazes, and red indicating deeper clouds. The prominent bluish-white oval is the Great Red Spot. The observation was made at a solar phase angle of 75 degrees but has been projected onto a crescent to remove distortion caused by Jupiter’s rotation during the scan. The Io image, taken at 00:25 UT on March 1st 2007, is an approximately true-color composite taken by the panchromatic Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), with color information provided by the 0.5 µm (“blue”) and 0.9 µm (“methane”) channels of the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC). The image shows a major eruption in progress on Io’s night side, at the northern volcano Tvashtar. Incandescent lava glows red beneath a 330-kilometer high volcanic plume, whose uppermost portions are illuminated by sunlight. The plume appears blue due to scattering of light by small particles in the plume.

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Filed under NASA LORRI space astronomy Jupiter Io moon LEISA Great Red Spot LORRI

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Moons around Jupiter
The New Horizons Long  Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took this  photo of Jupiter and two  of its moons at 19:42:01 UTC on January 9,  2007, when the spacecraft was  80 million kilometers (49.6 million  miles) from the giant planet. The  volcanic moon Io is to the left of  the planet and the icy moon Ganymede  is to the right.  Ganymede’s average orbit distance from Jupiter is about 1 million   kilometers (620,000 miles); Io’s is 422,000 kilometers (262,000 miles).   Both Io and Ganymede are larger than Earth’s moon; Ganymede is larger   than the planet Mercury.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute
(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Moons around Jupiter

The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took this photo of Jupiter and two of its moons at 19:42:01 UTC on January 9, 2007, when the spacecraft was 80 million kilometers (49.6 million miles) from the giant planet. The volcanic moon Io is to the left of the planet and the icy moon Ganymede is to the right.

Ganymede’s average orbit distance from Jupiter is about 1 million kilometers (620,000 miles); Io’s is 422,000 kilometers (262,000 miles). Both Io and Ganymede are larger than Earth’s moon; Ganymede is larger than the planet Mercury.

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Filed under NASA Jupiter moons space astronomy LORRI Io Ganymede space