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Posts tagged Big Bang

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exploringthecosmos:

If the universe is expanding, does that mean that I am getting bigger?
No. The electromagnetic forces that are holding you together are stronger than the expansion of the universe. This means that while the universe is expanding, you are not. Furthermore, while the space between galaxies is expanding, the galaxies themselves are not getting bigger; likewise with clusters of galaxies like the Local Group and even superclusters. The Virgo Cluster, for example, is ~100 million light years across and is marginally gravitationally bound. The attractive forces within the supercluster is slowed down by the expansion of the universe by approximately 20%.
Why is everyone leaving us? Does this mean that we are in the center of the universe?
It looks like everything is moving away from us because the universe is expanding! A useful tool to always keep in mind is the Cosmological Principle. This is commonly stated as ‘Viewed on a sufficiently large scale, the properties of the Universe are the same for all observers.’ This useful tool can be applied to the expanding universe. Since all observers in the universe (meaning your position in the universe will not affect one’s observations) will see the same expansion, everyone will see galaxies moving away from them! Following this, it seems like everyone would believe that they are at the center of the universe, but this can’t be. Every point in space is moving away from every other point in space; there is no unique center to the universe.
Is space expanding, or just galaxies moving apart in space?
Spacetime is constantly being created as the universe expands. With this expansion, galaxies seem to be moving away from us, but astronomers have a technique to test if galaxies are really moving. For the moment, imagine a really large sphere centered on our galaxy perhaps containing a few hundred galaxies. The galaxies along the surface of the sphere have two types of motion: random motion due to their own movement and motion due to the expansion of the universe. When each galaxy along the surface of the sphere is analyzed, they all have almost the same motion: the motion shared among each of these galaxies is due to the expansion of the universe and the motion that diverges from the motion which is caused by the expansion is random motion. It has been found that a significant proportion of the motion is due to the expansion of the universe and very little motion is random when we take into consideration galaxies at large distances. Thus, we can conclude that the motion of galaxies is indeed due to the expansion: the space between galaxies is moving, the galaxies are not receding in a classical sense. Going back to our tool, the Cosmological Principle, if the galaxies were indeed moving away from us, turning back time, the galaxies would be approaching a specific place in space and time where the Big Bang happened. This would violate the notion of a homogeneous and isotropic universe which would lead to the Big Bang happening in a particular place (ie: a special place in the Universe.) Since this cannot be the case, we can easily conclude that galaxies must not be receding away from us but rather that they appear to be.
Can recession velocity be greater than the speed of light?
Astronomers commonly probe the depths of space that reveal redshifts larger than one (z>1) which suggests that these observed objects are receding at greater speeds than that of light. Since nothing can move faster than light, we immediately know that these galaxies are not receding away from us with speeds greater than the speed of light. But if they seem to be moving away from us faster than the speed of light, what does this mean? The space itself is expanding faster than the speed of light! Recall that redshift is just the stretching of photons during their journey to our detectors. While the photons were on their journeys through space, space itself expanded faster than light which stretched these photons significantly to make the galaxies appear to be receding faster than light. Remember, nothing can move faster than light: except the expansion of space itself.
Where in space did the Big Bang happen?
Everywhere! And nowhere! To say that the Big Bang happened in a particular place in the universe would again violate the Cosmological Principle and the notion that there is no special place in the universe. Furthermore, the Big Bang created space, so to ask the question of where it happened is meaningless because prior to the creation of the universe, there was no space! The Big Bang was the creation of space and time whose spatial location in the universe has no meaning.
Are there any other questions you would like to see answered?

exploringthecosmos:

If the universe is expanding, does that mean that I am getting bigger?


No. The electromagnetic forces that are holding you together are stronger than the expansion of the universe. This means that while the universe is expanding, you are not. Furthermore, while the space between galaxies is expanding, the galaxies themselves are not getting bigger; likewise with clusters of galaxies like the Local Group and even superclusters. The Virgo Cluster, for example, is ~100 million light years across and is marginally gravitationally bound. The attractive forces within the supercluster is slowed down by the expansion of the universe by approximately 20%.

Why is everyone leaving us? Does this mean that we are in the center of the universe?

It looks like everything is moving away from us because the universe is expanding! A useful tool to always keep in mind is the Cosmological Principle. This is commonly stated as ‘Viewed on a sufficiently large scale, the properties of the Universe are the same for all observers.’ This useful tool can be applied to the expanding universe. Since all observers in the universe (meaning your position in the universe will not affect one’s observations) will see the same expansion, everyone will see galaxies moving away from them! Following this, it seems like everyone would believe that they are at the center of the universe, but this can’t be. Every point in space is moving away from every other point in space; there is no unique center to the universe.

Is space expanding, or just galaxies moving apart in space?

Spacetime is constantly being created as the universe expands. With this expansion, galaxies seem to be moving away from us, but astronomers have a technique to test if galaxies are really moving. For the moment, imagine a really large sphere centered on our galaxy perhaps containing a few hundred galaxies. The galaxies along the surface of the sphere have two types of motion: random motion due to their own movement and motion due to the expansion of the universe. When each galaxy along the surface of the sphere is analyzed, they all have almost the same motion: the motion shared among each of these galaxies is due to the expansion of the universe and the motion that diverges from the motion which is caused by the expansion is random motion. It has been found that a significant proportion of the motion is due to the expansion of the universe and very little motion is random when we take into consideration galaxies at large distances. Thus, we can conclude that the motion of galaxies is indeed due to the expansion: the space between galaxies is moving, the galaxies are not receding in a classical sense. Going back to our tool, the Cosmological Principle, if the galaxies were indeed moving away from us, turning back time, the galaxies would be approaching a specific place in space and time where the Big Bang happened. This would violate the notion of a homogeneous and isotropic universe which would lead to the Big Bang happening in a particular place (ie: a special place in the Universe.) Since this cannot be the case, we can easily conclude that galaxies must not be receding away from us but rather that they appear to be.

Can recession velocity be greater than the speed of light?

Astronomers commonly probe the depths of space that reveal redshifts larger than one (z>1) which suggests that these observed objects are receding at greater speeds than that of light. Since nothing can move faster than light, we immediately know that these galaxies are not receding away from us with speeds greater than the speed of light. But if they seem to be moving away from us faster than the speed of light, what does this mean? The space itself is expanding faster than the speed of light! Recall that redshift is just the stretching of photons during their journey to our detectors. While the photons were on their journeys through space, space itself expanded faster than light which stretched these photons significantly to make the galaxies appear to be receding faster than light. Remember, nothing can move faster than light: except the expansion of space itself.

Where in space did the Big Bang happen?

Everywhere! And nowhere! To say that the Big Bang happened in a particular place in the universe would again violate the Cosmological Principle and the notion that there is no special place in the universe. Furthermore, the Big Bang created space, so to ask the question of where it happened is meaningless because prior to the creation of the universe, there was no space! The Big Bang was the creation of space and time whose spatial location in the universe has no meaning.

Are there any other questions you would like to see answered?

Filed under Exploring the Cosmos universe Big Bang science cosmology

228 notes

exploringthecosmos:

The Big Bang
The Big Bang is a beautiful theory which is an effort to understand where the universe came from. Some of the most fundamental questions concerning our origins, such as that of the elements, can be explained with the Big Bang theory. But just where did everything come from? What existed before the Big Bang? Where did space come from? And what caused the Big Bang? Well, the simple answer is: We don’t know.
We know the universe is expanding; it’s accelerating, actually. This means that yesterday, the universe was a little bit smaller than it is today. A month ago, it was even smaller. A year ago, smaller still. Turning the clock backwards, the universe seems to be getting smaller, the galaxies closer together. If we go further enough back in time, the universe was so small that everything was contained in a point of space and time. Everything that exists today; you, me, the Earth, our Galaxy, everything came from this point.
Approximately 14.6 billion years ago, the Universe was created and it was very hot. Radiation (simply photons) dominated the early universe which cooled down as it expanded. Analysis of the CMB data suggests that the universe is a perfect blackbody; a higher blackbody temperature means typical photons have higher energies. In the early universe, these photons were so energetic that they produced matter-antimatter particles copiously seemingly out of “nothing” which can be explained using Einstein’s E=mc² formula (see this post.) The early universe was constantly creating matter and antimatter which quickly annihilated; this is the Particle Era. The universe was bubbling with matter, the prerequisite for everything in our Universe. Since our Universe is made of matter, and not antimatter, a baryonic asymmetry is proposed to be the origin of our matter dominated Universe.
Once the mean photon energy drops below ~1MeV, nuclei may be formed. This is the nuclear binding energy and thus, the Nucleosynthesis Era. During the Nucleosynthesis Era, the universe is one big nuclear reactor. This era sets the primordial chemical composition of the universe: 76% Hydrogen and 24% Helium.
The Nucleosynthesis Era is followed by the Era of Nuclei. Photon energies are at this point beyond the electron binding energy (~1eV). This era of the universe is foggy since photons are continuously being scattered by nuclei. At the very special moment during which photon energies drop below the electron binding energy, electrons may then bind to nuclei to form the first atoms - the fog is lifted. The Universe, during the era of atoms, becomes transparent. Photons are no longer being continuously scattered and they are suddenly released. This release of photons during the Era of Atoms is the origin of the Cosmic Microwave Background and is a significant use of study. Recall that beyond the CMB, before stable atoms are made, the universe is still foggy. It is for this reason that we cannot see beyond this point in the universe.
Not only can we not see past this point in the universe, but we cannot (yet) study what is happening at the moment of the Big Bang. There are no mathematical tools that can be used at the moment of the Big Bang, and thus, we cannot study what happened before the Big Bang. The current laws of physics seem to break down at the singularity in the beginning of the Universe, similar to what happens when we attempt to understand what happens inside a black hole. What caused the Big Bang is still a mystery, and there is still a lot left to discover, but we have achieved a lot in our understanding. The origin of our species, of the stars in the sky, of the elements that compose our Universe, can all be explained with this elegant theory.

exploringthecosmos:

The Big Bang

The Big Bang is a beautiful theory which is an effort to understand where the universe came from. Some of the most fundamental questions concerning our origins, such as that of the elements, can be explained with the Big Bang theory. But just where did everything come from? What existed before the Big Bang? Where did space come from? And what caused the Big Bang? Well, the simple answer is: We don’t know.

We know the universe is expanding; it’s accelerating, actually. This means that yesterday, the universe was a little bit smaller than it is today. A month ago, it was even smaller. A year ago, smaller still. Turning the clock backwards, the universe seems to be getting smaller, the galaxies closer together. If we go further enough back in time, the universe was so small that everything was contained in a point of space and time. Everything that exists today; you, me, the Earth, our Galaxy, everything came from this point.

Approximately 14.6 billion years ago, the Universe was created and it was very hot. Radiation (simply photons) dominated the early universe which cooled down as it expanded. Analysis of the CMB data suggests that the universe is a perfect blackbody; a higher blackbody temperature means typical photons have higher energies. In the early universe, these photons were so energetic that they produced matter-antimatter particles copiously seemingly out of “nothing” which can be explained using Einstein’s E=mc² formula (see this post.) The early universe was constantly creating matter and antimatter which quickly annihilated; this is the Particle Era. The universe was bubbling with matter, the prerequisite for everything in our Universe. Since our Universe is made of matter, and not antimatter, a baryonic asymmetry is proposed to be the origin of our matter dominated Universe.

Once the mean photon energy drops below ~1MeV, nuclei may be formed. This is the nuclear binding energy and thus, the Nucleosynthesis Era. During the Nucleosynthesis Era, the universe is one big nuclear reactor. This era sets the primordial chemical composition of the universe: 76% Hydrogen and 24% Helium.

The Nucleosynthesis Era is followed by the Era of Nuclei. Photon energies are at this point beyond the electron binding energy (~1eV). This era of the universe is foggy since photons are continuously being scattered by nuclei. At the very special moment during which photon energies drop below the electron binding energy, electrons may then bind to nuclei to form the first atoms - the fog is lifted. The Universe, during the era of atoms, becomes transparent. Photons are no longer being continuously scattered and they are suddenly released. This release of photons during the Era of Atoms is the origin of the Cosmic Microwave Background and is a significant use of study. Recall that beyond the CMB, before stable atoms are made, the universe is still foggy. It is for this reason that we cannot see beyond this point in the universe.

Not only can we not see past this point in the universe, but we cannot (yet) study what is happening at the moment of the Big Bang. There are no mathematical tools that can be used at the moment of the Big Bang, and thus, we cannot study what happened before the Big Bang. The current laws of physics seem to break down at the singularity in the beginning of the Universe, similar to what happens when we attempt to understand what happens inside a black hole. What caused the Big Bang is still a mystery, and there is still a lot left to discover, but we have achieved a lot in our understanding. The origin of our species, of the stars in the sky, of the elements that compose our Universe, can all be explained with this elegant theory.

Filed under science astronomy cosmology physics Big Bang universe

41 notes

exploringthecosmos:

If the universe is expanding, does that mean that I am getting bigger?
No. The electromagnetic forces that are holding you together are stronger than the expansion of the universe. This means that while the universe is expanding, you are not. Furthermore, while the space between galaxies is expanding, the galaxies themselves are not getting bigger; likewise with clusters of galaxies like the Local Group and even superclusters. The Virgo Cluster, for example, is ~100 million light years across and is marginally gravitationally bound. The attractive forces within the supercluster is slowed down by the expansion of the universe by approximately 20%.
Why is everyone leaving us? Does this mean that we are in the center of the universe?
It looks like everything is moving away from us because the universe is expanding! A useful tool to always keep in mind is the Cosmological Principle. This is commonly stated as ‘Viewed on a sufficiently large scale, the properties of the Universe are the same for all observers.’ This useful tool can be applied to the expanding universe. Since all observers in the universe (meaning your position in the universe will not affect one’s observations) will see the same expansion, everyone will see galaxies moving away from them! Following this, it seems like everyone would believe that they are at the center of the universe, but this can’t be. Every point in space is moving away from every other point in space; there is no unique center to the universe.
Is space expanding, or just galaxies moving apart in space?
Spacetime is constantly being created as the universe expands. With this expansion, galaxies seem to be moving away from us, but astronomers have a technique to test if galaxies are really moving. For the moment, imagine a really large sphere centered on our galaxy perhaps containing a few hundred galaxies. The galaxies along the surface of the sphere have two types of motion: random motion due to their own movement and motion due to the expansion of the universe. When each galaxy along the surface of the sphere is analyzed, they all have almost the same motion: the motion shared among each of these galaxies is due to the expansion of the universe and the motion that diverges from the motion which is caused by the expansion is random motion. It has been found that a significant proportion of the motion is due to the expansion of the universe and very little motion is random when we take into consideration galaxies at large distances. Thus, we can conclude that the motion of galaxies is indeed due to the expansion: the space between galaxies is moving, the galaxies are not receding in a classical sense. Going back to our tool, the Cosmological Principle, if the galaxies were indeed moving away from us, turning back time, the galaxies would be approaching a specific place in space and time where the Big Bang happened. This would violate the notion of a homogeneous and isotropic universe which would lead to the Big Bang happening in a particular place (ie: a special place in the Universe.) Since this cannot be the case, we can easily conclude that galaxies must not be receding away from us but rather that they appear to be.
Can recession velocity be greater than the speed of light?
Astronomers commonly probe the depths of space that reveal redshifts larger than one (z>1) which suggests that these observed objects are receding at greater speeds than that of light. Since nothing can move faster than light, we immediately know that these galaxies are not receding away from us with speeds greater than the speed of light. But if they seem to be moving away from us faster than the speed of light, what does this mean? The space itself is expanding faster than the speed of light! Recall that redshift is just the stretching of photons during their journey to our detectors. While the photons were on their journeys through space, space itself expanded faster than light which stretched these photons significantly to make the galaxies appear to be receding faster than light. Remember, nothing can move faster than light: except the expansion of space itself.
Where in space did the Big Bang happen?
Everywhere! And nowhere! To say that the Big Bang happened in a particular place in the universe would again violate the Cosmological Principle and the notion that there is no special place in the universe. Furthermore, the Big Bang created space, so to ask the question of where it happened is meaningless because prior to the creation of the universe, there was no space! The Big Bang was the creation of space and time whose spatial location in the universe has no meaning.
Are there any other questions you would like to see answered?

exploringthecosmos:

If the universe is expanding, does that mean that I am getting bigger?


No. The electromagnetic forces that are holding you together are stronger than the expansion of the universe. This means that while the universe is expanding, you are not. Furthermore, while the space between galaxies is expanding, the galaxies themselves are not getting bigger; likewise with clusters of galaxies like the Local Group and even superclusters. The Virgo Cluster, for example, is ~100 million light years across and is marginally gravitationally bound. The attractive forces within the supercluster is slowed down by the expansion of the universe by approximately 20%.

Why is everyone leaving us? Does this mean that we are in the center of the universe?

It looks like everything is moving away from us because the universe is expanding! A useful tool to always keep in mind is the Cosmological Principle. This is commonly stated as ‘Viewed on a sufficiently large scale, the properties of the Universe are the same for all observers.’ This useful tool can be applied to the expanding universe. Since all observers in the universe (meaning your position in the universe will not affect one’s observations) will see the same expansion, everyone will see galaxies moving away from them! Following this, it seems like everyone would believe that they are at the center of the universe, but this can’t be. Every point in space is moving away from every other point in space; there is no unique center to the universe.

Is space expanding, or just galaxies moving apart in space?

Spacetime is constantly being created as the universe expands. With this expansion, galaxies seem to be moving away from us, but astronomers have a technique to test if galaxies are really moving. For the moment, imagine a really large sphere centered on our galaxy perhaps containing a few hundred galaxies. The galaxies along the surface of the sphere have two types of motion: random motion due to their own movement and motion due to the expansion of the universe. When each galaxy along the surface of the sphere is analyzed, they all have almost the same motion: the motion shared among each of these galaxies is due to the expansion of the universe and the motion that diverges from the motion which is caused by the expansion is random motion. It has been found that a significant proportion of the motion is due to the expansion of the universe and very little motion is random when we take into consideration galaxies at large distances. Thus, we can conclude that the motion of galaxies is indeed due to the expansion: the space between galaxies is moving, the galaxies are not receding in a classical sense. Going back to our tool, the Cosmological Principle, if the galaxies were indeed moving away from us, turning back time, the galaxies would be approaching a specific place in space and time where the Big Bang happened. This would violate the notion of a homogeneous and isotropic universe which would lead to the Big Bang happening in a particular place (ie: a special place in the Universe.) Since this cannot be the case, we can easily conclude that galaxies must not be receding away from us but rather that they appear to be.

Can recession velocity be greater than the speed of light?

Astronomers commonly probe the depths of space that reveal redshifts larger than one (z>1) which suggests that these observed objects are receding at greater speeds than that of light. Since nothing can move faster than light, we immediately know that these galaxies are not receding away from us with speeds greater than the speed of light. But if they seem to be moving away from us faster than the speed of light, what does this mean? The space itself is expanding faster than the speed of light! Recall that redshift is just the stretching of photons during their journey to our detectors. While the photons were on their journeys through space, space itself expanded faster than light which stretched these photons significantly to make the galaxies appear to be receding faster than light. Remember, nothing can move faster than light: except the expansion of space itself.

Where in space did the Big Bang happen?

Everywhere! And nowhere! To say that the Big Bang happened in a particular place in the universe would again violate the Cosmological Principle and the notion that there is no special place in the universe. Furthermore, the Big Bang created space, so to ask the question of where it happened is meaningless because prior to the creation of the universe, there was no space! The Big Bang was the creation of space and time whose spatial location in the universe has no meaning.

Are there any other questions you would like to see answered?

Filed under universe astronomy cosmology Big Bang science

6 notes

What is the Size of the Universe?

We need to account for the expansion.
Astronomers have recently estimated a lower limit to the size of the universe to be roughly 78 billion light years in diameter. In this video I try to explain how that’s possible.

Filed under universe cosmology Big Bang

7 notes

Fate of the Universe

When the word first got out that the expansion of the universe was accelerating, many astronomers questioned the results. They felt that the observations must be wrong, or the interpretation must be flawed. The whole concept was so difficult to believe because it requires significant changes in our understanding of the way the universe works.

Say you step outside and throw a baseball up into the air. The gravity of Earth begins immediately to act on the baseball, slowing it down even as it rises into the air. The upward speed of the baseball slows until it stops at its peak, then gravity’s pull causes it to drop down at an ever-increasing speed. What you can’t see is that the baseball also has a tiny gravitational pull that acts upon Earth. Gravity always acts to pull matter together.

Now consider a spaceship. If launched with enough speed, a spaceship will escape Earth’s gravity to the extent that it will not fall back to the planet. However, it hasn’t escaped the pull of Earth entirely. Though it travels away, the spaceship will be continuously slowed — just not to the point where it stops.

Competing Models

These same concepts apply to the expansion of space. That expansion was launched in the Big Bang, and ever since then, each bit of matter in the universe has been attracted to every other bit by the force of gravity. This should have been slowing down the expansion.

Before the discovery of dark energy, scientists had two models of how the universe’s expansion would work. In one scenario, there would be enough matter in the universe to slow the expansion to the point where, like the baseball, it would come to a halt and start to retract, everything crashing back together in a “Big Crunch.”

In the other scenario, there would be too little matter to stop the expansion and everything would drift on forever, always slowing and slowing but never stopping — like the spaceship. The galaxies would drift apart from each other until they were out of view. The universe would continue growing larger as countless generations of stars faded and died out. It would end in a vast, dark, and cold state: a “Big Chill,” if you will.

Does the Matter Matter?

By the early 1990s, astronomers had calculated how much mass was in the universe, and decided on the Big Chill as the most likely end of the universe. But then dark energy showed up in our observations.

According to the Big Chill, the universe should be expanding more slowly today than it did in the past, because gravity has had time to work on slowing the universe down over all these billions of years. But astronomers found that the universe is moving faster today than it was a billion years ago, meaning something must be working to speed it up.

This result seems crazy because gravity always pulls and slows — it never pushes. Yet some force appears to be pushing the universe apart. Astronomers, concluding that we just don’t know what this force is, have attributed it to a mysterious dark energy.

The Big Rip

With dark energy, the fate of the universe might go well beyond the Big Chill. In the strangest and most speculative scenario, as the universe expands ever faster, all of gravity’s work will be undone. Clusters of galaxies will disband and separate. Then galaxies themselves will be torn apart. The solar system, stars, planets, and even molecules and atoms could be shredded by the ever-faster expansion. The universe that was born in a violent expansion could end with an even more violent expansion called the Big Rip.

So out of the three scenarios for the fate of the universe — re-collapse to a Big Crunch, expand ever more slowly to a Big Chill, or expand ever faster to a Big Rip — we have managed to narrow the possibilities down somewhat.

Evidence has ruled out the Big Crunch. The Big Chill is probably the least that will happen. Whether or not the universe goes all the way to a Big Rip depends on what dark energy really is, and whether it will stay constant forever or fade away as suddenly as it appears to have arisen. And that we do not yet know.

No matter which scenario is right, the universe still has at least a few tens of billions of years left — which leaves us plenty of time to look for the answers.

(Source: hubblesite.org)

Filed under universe cosmology dark matter dark energy theoretical physics big bang big crunch big rip astronomy

3 notes

The universe’s first stars were whirling dervishes

The universe’s first stars were fast-rotating “spinstars”, suggests a study of the chemical signature they left behind. Their fast spins may have made them especially prone to dying in spectacular explosions called gamma-ray bursts.

Today’s telescopes are not powerful enough to directly observe the universe’s first stars, which formed and died just a few hundred million years after the big bang. Little is known about them, except that they were probably much heavier than the sun.

But their explosive deaths left behind chemicals that were incorporated into stars that formed later, some of which are still alive today. By analysing chemicals incorporated into old stars in the Milky Way, astronomers have found evidence that the first stars were extremely fast rotators.

Cristina Chiappini of the Liebniz Astrophysical Institute in Potsdam, Germany, and colleagues analysed stars in an ancient star cluster called NGC 6522. The cluster’s stars formed at least 12 billion years ago, very early in the universe’s 13.7-billion-year history.

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Filed under universe space astronomy astrophysics stars big bang supernovae milky way galaxy

3 notes

 Microwave Milky Way   Credit:  ESA, Planck HFI & LFI Consortia
 Explanation:  Seen from our edge-on perspective, the Milky Way Galaxy sprawls across the middle of this false-color, all sky view.  The expansive microwave map is based on 1 year’s worth of data from instruments onboard the sky-surveying Planck spacecraft.  Remarkably, the bright stripe of gas and dust clouds along the galactic plane and the galaxy’s enormous arcing structures seen at microwave energies are hundreds or thousands of light-years away, while the mottled regions at the top and bottom represent the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, some 13.7 billion light-years distant.  Left over from the Big Bang, fluctuations in the CMB reflect the origins of structure in the evolving universe.  Analyzing the microwave data, Planck scientists plan to separate the contributions of the Milky Way and CMB radiation.  The work will ferret out the characteristics of the CMB across the entire sky and glean information about the make up of our Milky Way Galaxy.
(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)
Microwave Milky Way
Credit: ESA, Planck HFI & LFI Consortia

Explanation: Seen from our edge-on perspective, the Milky Way Galaxy sprawls across the middle of this false-color, all sky view. The expansive microwave map is based on 1 year’s worth of data from instruments onboard the sky-surveying Planck spacecraft. Remarkably, the bright stripe of gas and dust clouds along the galactic plane and the galaxy’s enormous arcing structures seen at microwave energies are hundreds or thousands of light-years away, while the mottled regions at the top and bottom represent the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, some 13.7 billion light-years distant. Left over from the Big Bang, fluctuations in the CMB reflect the origins of structure in the evolving universe. Analyzing the microwave data, Planck scientists plan to separate the contributions of the Milky Way and CMB radiation. The work will ferret out the characteristics of the CMB across the entire sky and glean information about the make up of our Milky Way Galaxy.

(source: incomprehensibleuniverse)

Filed under milky way galaxy CMB universe big bang space astronomy